Intergeotherm JSC was established specially to develop geothermal projects in Russia
and Latin America (Nicaragua, Mexico, and Salvador). Over the last years
Intergeotherm JSC works in close cooperation with Nauka SC (www.naukasc.ru),
Geotherm-M SC, and the Russian Association of Geothermal Energy Society
(www.gesa.ru) on implementation of geothermal projects in Kamchatka, Kuril Islands,
North Caucasia, and Kaliningrad region.
Geothermal resources in Russia are available over a wide territory from Kaliningrad
region in the west to Kuril Islands in the east. Such reserves could cover 100%
demand of several regions in Russia (Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, Chukotka, part of
Siberia, Krasnodarsky Krai, etc.) for heat and electricity. However being rich in
geothermal resources, some of such regions are located in severe climate conditions,
where snow depth in winter could reach 6-10 meters, and wind speed could come up to
In several remote regions lacking local fossil fuel reserves a price for electricity
usually exceeds 15 cents (ranging from 12 to 30 cents) per 1kWh, while 1 Gkal could
cost US$60 - US$70. Therefore geothermal energy is a way out for such regions,
offering valid benefits through reduction of heat and electricity cost, and
providing environmentally friendly electricity generation technology.
As early as in 1995 in the USSR were developed and published basic principles of
water-ammonia cycle (L.M.Rosenfeld, A.G.Tkachev. Cooling machines and devices.
Moscow: Gosorgizdat, 1955. 584 p.) for electricity generation from low enthalpy
geothermal resources (hot water with temperature over 90°C). In our days this
technology is widely applied.
In 1967 the first world Paratunsky binary cycle power plant utilizing F-112 working
fluid was constructed in Kamchatka and has been in continuous operation since that
Presently in Russia with participation of Intergeotherm JSC, the Association of
Geothermal Energy Society, Nauka SC several binary cycle power plant projects are
under development or implementation, among which: Verkhne-Mutnovskaya binary cycle
power plant, Pauzhetsky binary cycle power plant, binary cycle power plants on Kuril
Islands and in Krasnodar region. Such binary cycle power plants are supplied with
different types of a condenser (air- or water-cooled condensers) depending on
climate conditions and availability of water sources.
Since 1999 the 12 (3x4) MW Verkhne-Mutnovskaya geothermal power plant with an air-
cooled condenser has been in successful operation in Kamchatka. Air-cooled
condensers proved themselves to be reliable in severe climate conditions of
Kamchatka with no water resources available. In winter, when temperature could drop
below 25°C, the Verkhne-Mutnovskaya geothermal power plant can generate up to 12,8 MW
(e). The Verkhne-Mutnovskaya geothermal direct cycle power plant is in fact the
first experience of successful operation of a geothermal power plant with an air-
cooled condenser generating environmentally friendly heat and electricity. Combined
heat and electricity production from geothermal resources could solve the problem of
electricity and heat deficit in remote regions with severe climate conditions.