Development of Geothermics has almost 25 years of tradition in Poland. First
experimental Geothermal plant commenced their activity in 1992 in Podhale (South of
Poland). It took next 4 years to open first geothermal plant in Pyrzyce (NW Poland).
Currently there are 6 plants in Poland however they are mainly focused on heating
then electricity production. There are also almost 30 spa using geothermal waters for
recreation and heath treatment.
Widespread opinion that almost 80% of Polish territory meet criteria for geothermal
energy development is overestimated. Looking for perspective area one uses heat flow
data to evaluate the temperature. Estimation of temperature model is critically
dependant on highquality surface boundary values of heat flow. A terrestrial heat
flow (HFD) could be strongly influenced by paleoclimatic factor (Bailing, 2002;
Kukkonen and Joeleht, 2003; Szewczyk 2001; Szewczyk and Gientka, 2004) taking into
consideration the grate number of HF data bases on shallow holes. A majority of HFD
maps not only for Europe were performed without this factor consideration.
The next very critical factors influencing all values of HFD determinations are the
insufficient knowledge of depth distribution of the thermal conductivity (K). Based
on our investigation the heat flow densities for deep boreholes in Polish Lowlands
for uppermost part (<2,000m) are not in equilibrium. The lower parts of profiles are
still in thermal regime of the Weichselian glaciation. Interglacial warmings were
quickly forgotten by underground space.
Changes of Paleoclimatic ground surface temperature (GST) in last 100ka are a major
factor causing vertical variation of terrestrial heat flow density (HFD). From
geothermal point of view the information of "normal" glacial HFD is more interesting.
Bailing N. (2002) - Observation of vertical variation in heat flow from deep
boreholes measurements in various tectonic provinces in NW Europe. Proc. EGS Nice.
Kukkonen I.T., Joeleht A. (2003) - Weichselian temperatures from geothermal heat flow
data. JGR vol.108, B3, 2163.